Bursa

Bursa (Bursa City information that you can have here for your Bursa Tours and Travel)

Bursa, City Information

Bursa is one of a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region. It is the fourth most populous city in Turkey and one of the most industrialized metropolitan centres in the country. The city is also the administrative centre of Bursa Province.

Bursa was the first capital city of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1363. Bursa has a nickname which is Yeşil Bursa in Turkish (meaning "Green Bursa") in reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban fabric, as well as to the vast and richly varied forests of the surrounding region. The ski resort of Mount Uludağ towers over it. The mountain was called the Mysian Olympus by the Romans who lived there before.

Bursa has rather orderly urban growth and borders a fertile plain. The mausoleums of the early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the city's main landmarks include numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period.

Bursa also has thermal baths and several museums, including a museum of archaeology. The shadow play characters Karagöz and Hacivat are based on historic personalities who lived and died in Bursa.

Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes such as İskender kebap, specially candied marron glacés, peaches and Turkish Delight.

Bursa houses the Uludağ University, and its population can claim one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey. The historic towns of İznik (Nicaea), Mudanya and Zeytinbağı are all situated in Bursa Province.

Bursa, Historical Information

Bursa, the earliest known human settlement near Bursa's current location was at Ilıpınar Höyüğü around 5200 BC. It was followed by the ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias I, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias rebuilt the city and renamed it Prusa. After 128 years of Bithynian rule, Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to the Roman Empire in 74 BC. An early Roman Treasure was found in the vicinity of Bursa in the early 20th century. Composed of a woman's silver toilet articles, it is now in the British Museum.

Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326. As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne (Adrianople) in East Thrace, the Ottomans turned it into the new capital city in 1363, but Bursa retained its spiritual and commercial importance in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Külliyesi (Bayezid I theological complex) in Bursa between 1390 and 1395 and the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque) between 1396 and 1400.

Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial centre in the empire until Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453. The population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487.

During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally from China, and was the main production centre for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century. Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centres of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey.

The city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, and was a major centre for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europe between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when the communist regime in Bulgaria expelled approximately 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey. About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees eventually settled in Bursa.

Bursa, Geography Information

Bursa is settled on the northwestern slopes of Mount Uludağ in the southern Marmara Region. It is the capital city of Bursa Province bordered by the Sea of Marmara and Yalova to the north; Kocaeli and Sakarya to the northeast; Bilecik to the east; and Kütahya and Balıkesir to the south.

Bursa, Economy Information

Bursa is the centre of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicle producers like Fiat, Renault and Karsan, as well as automotive parts producers like Bosch, Mako, Valeo, Johnson Controls, Delphi have been active in the city for decades. The textile and food industries are equally strong, with Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries being present in the city's organized industrial zones.

Bursa has the top 10 industry corporations in the Bursa province are as follows

 Oyak Renault

Tofaş Fiat

Bosch

Borçelik

Sütaş Dairy Products

Bursa Eczacılar Kooperatifi

Türk Prysmian Kablo

Özdilek

Asil Çelik

Componenta Döktaş

Apart from its large automotive industry, Bursa also produces a substantial amount of dairy products (by Sütaş'), processed food (by Tat), and beverages (by Uludağ). Traditionally, Bursa was famous for being the largest centre of silk trade in the Byzantine and later the Ottoman empires, during the period of the lucrative Silk Road. The city is still a major centre for textiles in Turkey and is home to the Bursa International Textiles and Trade Centre (Bursa Uluslararası Tekstil ve Ticaret Merkezi, or BUTTIM). Bursa was also known for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, which have decreased in the recent decades due to the heavy industrialization of the city.

Bursa is a major centre for tourism. One of the most popular skiing resorts of Turkey is located at Mount Uludağ, just next to the city proper. Bursa's thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from the baths that are operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy centre which also makes use of thermal water.

Bursa, Transportaiton Information

Bursa has a metro (Bursaray), trams and bus system for inner-city public transport, while taxi cabs are also available. Bursa's Yenişehir Airport is 20 mi (32 km) away from the city centre. The citizens of Bursa also prefer Istanbul's airports such as Atatürk International Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport for flights to foreign countries, due to Istanbul's proximity to Bursa. There are numerous daily bus and ferry services between the two cities.

The 8.8 km (5.5 mi) long Bursa Uludağ Gondola (Turkish: Teleferik) connects Bursa with the ski resort areas 1,870 m (6,140 ft) high on the mountain Uludağ.

The only railway station in Bursa is the Harmancık station on the Balıkesir-Kütahya railway, which was opened in 1930.

Bursa, Education Information

Bursa has two public universities and one private university. Uludağ University, founded in 1975, is the oldest institution of higher education in the city. Founded first as the Bursa University then renamed Uludağ University in 1982, the university has a student body of 47,000, one of the largest in Turkey. Bursa Technical University is the second public university of Bursa and was established in 2010, beginning education in the 2011–2012 academic year.  The first private university of Bursa was the Bursa Orhangazi University, which started education in the 2012–2013 academic year. Istanbul Commerce University has opened graduate programs in the city in 2013. Orhangazi University was shut down by the Turkish Government after the failed coup attempt of July 2016.

Bursa, Sports Information

The city has one professional football club, Bursaspor, which competes in the Turkish Super League, the top-tier of Turkish football. As of December 21, the team plays their home games at The Timsah Arena stadium (literally meaning Crocodile Arena), which has a sitting capacity of 45,000. Bursaspor has won its first league title in the 2009–10 Turkish Super League season, becoming the second Anatolian club to ever win the league title after Trabzonspor. Today Bursaspor is considered one of the five biggest football clubs in Turkey along with Galatasaray SK, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş, and Trabzonspor.  The city has a professional basketball team in the Turkish Basketball League, Tofaş S.K., which was among the most successful teams.

Bursa, Main sights Information To Visit

Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque)

Ulu Cami is the largest mosque in Bursa and a landmark of early Ottoman architecture, which carried many elements from the Seljuk architecture. Ordered by Sultan Bayezid I, the mosque was designed and built by architect Ali Neccar in 1396–1400. It is a large and rectangular building, with a total of twenty domes that are arranged in four rows of five, and are supported by 12 columns. Supposedly the twenty domes were built instead of the twenty separate mosques which Sultan Bayezid I had promised for winning the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. The mosque has two minarets.  Inside the mosque there are 192 monumental wall inscriptions written by the famous calligraphers of that period. There is also a fountain (şadırvan) where worshipers can perform ritual ablutions before prayer; the dome over the şadırvan is capped by a skylight which creates a soft, serene light below; thus playing an important role in the illumination of the large building.  The horizontally spacious and dimly lit interior is designed to feel peaceful and contemplative. The subdivisions of space formed by multiple domes and pillars create a sense of privacy and even intimacy. This atmosphere contrasts with the later Ottoman mosques (see for example the works of Suleiman the Magnificent's chief architect Mimar Sinan.) The mosques that were built after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, and influenced by the design of the 6th century Byzantine basilica of Hagia Sophia, had increasingly elevated and large central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming; in order to convey the divine power of Allah, the majesty of the Ottoman Sultan, and the governmental authority of the Ottoman State.

Places of interest

A brief list of places of interest in and around Bursa is presented below. For a longer list, see places of interest in Bursa.

Mosques and külliye complexes

Bursa Grand Mosque and külliye

Yeşil Mosque and külliye

Bayezid I Mosque and külliye

Muradiye Mosque and külliye

Emir Sultan Mosque and külliye

Orhan Gazi Mosque and külliye

Hüdavendigar Mosque and külliye

Koca Sinan Paşa Mosque and külliye

İshak Paşa Mosque and külliye

Karacabey Grand Mosque

Karabaş-i Veli Cultural Centre

Bazaars and caravanserais

Yıldırım Bazaar

Koza Han

Pirinç Han

Other historic monuments     

Bursa Castle

Irgandı Bridge

Inkaya Sycamore, very big and impressive 600-year-old tree (Platanus Orientalis)

Museums

Bursa Archaeological Museum

Bursa City Museum

Bursa Atatürk Museum

Bursa Turkish Architecture Museum

Bursa Islamic Works Museum

Tofaş Museum of Cars and Anatolian Carriages

Armistice of Mudanya Museum

İznik Museum

Parks and gardens

Uludağ National Park

Bursa Zoo and Botanical Garden

Hot springs and thermal baths

Keramet hot spring

Çekirge hot spring

Armutlu hot spring

Oylat hot spring

Gemlik hot spring

Çelik Palas thermal bath

Beaches

Armutlu beach

Kumla beach

Kurşunlu beach

Orhangazi beach

Mudanya beach

Bursa Day Tour from Istanbul

Bursa, Districts

Osmangazi District

Osmangazi is one of the central metropolitan districts of the city of Bursa in Bursa Province, as well as the fourth largest overall municipality in Turkey. The municipality has a population of approximately 778,843 as of 2012. On its own, it would be the 8th largest city in Turkey.

Osmangazi has been shaped by several civilizations: Rome, Byzantium, Seljuqians, and Ottomans. The first marks of the Ottoman Empire exist within Osmangazi where it extended from the foot of Uludağ to the plain of Bursa. Within the boundaries of Osmangazi, approximately 1800 registered historical buildings exist.

Osmangazi, History

It was stated that there were various settlements in Bursa and its surroundings by 4000 B.C. But the certain information related to the region belongs to 700 B.C. Homeros called the region as Mysia.

There are two villages that remind Mysia settlements: Misi (Gümüştepe) and Misebolu. The region is called as Phrygia in the historical geography. It is known that Kimmers, running from Skyths, put an end to Phrygian sovereignty. The name of Bursa comes from the founder of this city, Prussias, the King of Bythinia.

The Bythinians, who immigrated to the region in 7th century B.C., used the name Bythinia.  It was pointed out that one of the most important commanders that Carthage had recommended the establishment of the City of Prusias and Olympus to King Prusian I. in 185 B.C. By the time, "Prusa" has been transformed to Bursa.  When Bythinia joined the Roman Empire in 74 B.C., it became the Asian Province that was governed by proconsuls (head of the province), who are assigned in Rome.  Bursa was under the sovereignty of Byzantine between 385-1326 A.D. The city became a thermal city after the thermal baths while silk production in the region started in 550 A.D. Bursa was seized by Osman Bey in 1307 and conquered by Orhan Bey, the son of Osman Bey, on 6 April 1335. The capital of the empire was moved to Bursa in 1335 and new development movements were initiated. When Bursa was conquered, the city consisted of the inner castle, but Orhan Gazi had the Orhan Gazi Complex built out of the town.

Public buildings such as mosques, baths, soup houses, hospitals, madrasahs were built out of the walls, where new settlements had been created, hence a new tradition of settling area had been established. Right after the conquest of Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed I., the active role of Bursa and its qualification as the administrative center had faded away.

There are no buildings surviving from Roman and Byzntium era. It is perveiced that the walls surrounding the city were built by Bythinians and used by Romans, Byzantiums and Ottomans after maintenance.  Bursa had developed more than other cities in the first two centuries of Ottomans. It was ornamented with a number of architectural structures and became a trade city as well as a science city, where various famous madarasahs were located. Hüdavendigar Complex of Sultan Murat I., Yıldırım Complex of Sultan Bayezid I., Green Complex whose construction was initiated by Sultan Mehmet I. and finished by Sultan Murat II. had affected the spatial development of Bursa and those still exist. Industrialization within the city was accelerated in the republican era, so that the population and the urban development of the city have changed in 1960s. The geographical location and the agricultural and industrial potential have increased the attraction of the city.

Osmangazi, Geography

Osmangazi, the center of social and economic relations for years, is in the crossroad of roads to İzmir, İstanbul and Eskişehir. Osmangazi is the biggest district of Bursa that is on the southwest coast of Marmara Sea. Gökdere River on the east, Nilüfer River and Mudanya Road on the west, Katırlı Mountains on the north, Uludağ and Kirazlı Plateau are the natural and artificial boundaries of the district.

Osmangazi, Economy

Nonetheless following types of industries exist in Osmangazi: automotive supply industry, textile, towel, knitter & tricot, shoe industry, agricultural machines, furniture, leather, plastic, machine and metal industry, electric, foundry, welding machine, stove and knife sectors. Moreover, there are also oil and flour factories.

Osmangazi, Main Sites to Visit.

Reşat Oyal Culture Park which is the symbol of Bursa,

İnkaya Plane which is the natural monument of 500 years old,

Tophane Slopes,

Kozahan which is located between Ulu Mosque and Orhan Mosque,

Emirhan which was built by Orhan Bey in 1340, Muradiye Complex which is composed of madrasah, school, soup house, bath and mosque, and more than twenty tombs including Murat II. and Cem Sultan,

Hüdavendigar Mosque,

Ulu mosque which is the sample of multi-pillared and multi-domed mosques,

Merinos City Park,

Botanical Park,

Soğanlı Zoo,

Pınarbaşı Park,

Soğukkuyu Park,

Hamitler Park,

Cable Water Ski Center.

Osmangazi, Historical Monuments

Bursa Castle

Bursa Fortress, 

Tomb of Murad I.,

Tomb of Pars Bey,

Çakır Ağa Bath,

Tombs of Osmangazi and Orhangazi, 

Tomb of Şehzade Mustafa, Bazaar, 

Archeology Museum, 

Atatürk Museum,

Museum of Ottoman House,

City Museum,

Ördekli Culture Center,

Gökdere Madrasah,

Irgandı Bridge,

Haraççıoğlu Madrasah,

Karabaş-ı Veli Lodge,

Balibey Khan,

Muradiye Bath,

Galle Khan